Hemp For Fuel
From 'The Emperor Wears No Cloths' by Jack Herer ISBN0 9524560 0 1
Excerpted from 'Energy Farming in America', by Lynn Osborne.
Biomass conversion to fuel has been proven economically feasible, first in laboratory tests and by continuous operation of pilot plants in field tests since 1973. When the energy crop is growing it takes CO2 from the air, so when it is burned the CO2 is released, creating a balanced system.
Biomass is the term used to describe all biologically produced matter. World production of biomass is estimated at 146 billion metric tons a year, mostly wild plant growth. . Some farm crops and trees can produce up to 20 metric tons per acre of biomass a year. Types of algae and grasses may produce 50 metric tons per year.
This biomass has a heating value of 5000-8000 BTU/lb, with virtually no ash or sulfur produced during combustion. About 6% of contiguous United States land area put into cultivation for biomass could supply all current demands for oil and gas.
The foundation upon which this is achieved is the emerging concept of "energy farming," wherein farmers grow and harvest crops for biomass conversion to fuels.
Pyrolysis is the process of applying high heat to organic matter (lignocellulosic materials) in the absence of air or in reduced air. The process can be adjusted to favor charcoal, condensable organic liquids (pyrolitic fuel oil), non-condensable gases, acetic acid, acetone, gas or methanol production with a 95.5% fuel-to-feed efficiency.
Pyrolysis has been used since the dawn of civilisation. Ancient Egyptians practices wood distillation by collecting the tars and pyroligneous acid for use in their embalming industry.
Methanol-powered automobiles and reduced emissions from coal-fired power plants can be accomplished by biomass conversion to fuel utilizing pyrolysis technology, and at the same time save the American farm while turning the American heartland into a prosperous source of clean energy production.
Pyrolysis has the advantage of using the same technology now used to process crude fossil oil and coal. Coal and oil conversion is more efficient in terms of fuel-to-feed ration, but biomass conversion by pyrolysis has many environmental and economic advantages over coal and oil.
Pyrolysis facilities will run three shifts a day. Some 65% of the energy from the raw biomass will be contained in the charcoal and fuel oils made at the facility. This charcoal has nearly the same heating value in BTU as coal, with virtually no sulfur.
Pyrolitic fuel oil has similar properties to no. 2 and no. 6 fuel oil. The charcoal can be transported economically by rail to all urban area power plants generating electricity. The fuel oil can be transported economically by trucking creating more jobs for Americans. When these plants use charcoal instead of coal, the problems of acid rain will begin to disappear.
When this energy system is on line producing a steady supply of fuel for electrical power plants, it will be more feasible to build the complex gasifying systems to produce methanol from cubed biomass, or make synthetic gasoline from the methanol by the addition of the Mobile Co. process equipment to the gasifier.
Hemp is the number one biomass producer on planet earth: 10 tons per acre in approximately four months. It is a woody plant containing 77% cellulose. Wood produces 60% cellulose.
This energy can be harvested with equipment readily available. It can be 'cubed' by modifying hay cubing equipment. This method condenses the bulk, reducing trucking costs from field to the pyrolysis reactor. And the biomass cubes are ready for conversion with no further treatment."
From 'The Report of The FCDA Europe'
by Kenn and Joanna d'Oudney, Fourth Edition, ISBN 0 9524421 1 6.
"Using the reactor in this 'gasifier' mode, by increasing heat, pressure and adding catalysts, methanol production is maximised at approximately 100 gallons per ton of biomass. Methanol (CH3OH) has always been the cheap and practical alternative to gasoline. After simple modification, the Internal Combustion Engine receives less wear from methanol. Electricity power generating stations can be run off methanol, or Cannabis Biomass Pyrolysis fuel-oil which is similar to home-heating oil, and/or use charcoal directly, in place of fossil fuels."
"The Cannabis Biomass Energy Equation (CBEE) demonstrates for the first time on record that fuel-energy sourced from the renewable, pollution-free resource of flora in the form of Cannabis Sativa, achieves uniquely economical replacement of fuels, and has always been so. There has not been this century, a single ecologically-pertinent fact, theory or postulation embodying practicable potentials as beneficial to the planet and the well-being of its people as those of the CBEE, given practical application in the CBRPF [Cannabis Biomass Resource and Pyrolysis Functions]; this formulation resolves Mankind's most crucial predicament in macro-Economics and Ecology to have arisen since the incipience of The Industrial revolution."
" Cannabis renders uranium and the dangerous fossil fuel pollutants:
A. commercially obsolete / economically redundant, and
B. achieves replacement without pollution, while
C. the Economy of the entire world thereby vastly benefits from significantly reduced energy prices."
"Consideration of the evidence of circumstances unmasks motives which explain the existence of governments' blatantly illegal ban on cannabis. This plant has not been targeted for Prohibition simply because some people like to smoke its resins and flowertops. At the time of writing, in-depth information about cannabis as the economical replacement for fossil-fuels and uranium, as food and raw material resource, remains esoteric - it has been deliberately and widely repressed."
"The Relegalisation of Cannabis today will allow a phased, gradual economic transition governed by market forces, from fossil to CBRPF-based techno-industrial civilisation."
THE CANNABIS BIOMASS ENERGY EQUATION FROM THE FCDA REPORT